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Some explanations from one of my C class handouts (see exercise 8) for the various +1 ``fudge factors'' in code fragments like those of this question's answer

A long article of mine laying the groundwork for this question's answer

Another long message of mine further explaining the ``fudge factors'' and derivations

An article by Lawrence Kirby including sample code and discussion of the case when N is close to RAND_MAX.


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