Q: What is this infamous null pointer, anyway?
A: The language definition states that for each pointer type, there is a special value--the ``null pointer''--which is distinguishable from all other pointer values and which is ``guaranteed to compare unequal to a pointer to any object or function.'' That is, a null pointer points definitively nowhere; it is not the address of any object or function. The address-of operator & will never yield a null pointer, nor will a successful call to malloc.[footnote] (malloc does return a null pointer when it fails, and this is a typical use of null pointers: as a ``special'' pointer value with some other meaning, usually ``not allocated'' or ``not pointing anywhere yet.'')
A null pointer is conceptually different from an uninitialized pointer. A null pointer is known not to point to any object or function; an uninitialized pointer might point anywhere. See also questions 1.30, 7.1, and 7.31.
As mentioned above, there is a null pointer for each pointer type, and the internal values of null pointers for different types may be different. Although programmers need not know the internal values, the compiler must always be informed which type of null pointer is required, so that it can make the distinction if necessary (see questions 5.2, 5.5, and 5.6).
K&R1 Sec. 5.4 pp. 97-8
K&R2 Sec. 5.4 p. 102
ISO Sec. 18.104.22.168
Rationale Sec. 22.214.171.124
H&S Sec. 5.3.2 pp. 121-3