Q: How do I get a null pointer in my programs?
A: With a null pointer constant.
According to the language definition, an ``integral constant expression with the value 0'' in a pointer context is converted into a null pointer at compile time. That is, in an initialization, assignment, or comparison when one side is a variable or expression of pointer type, the compiler can tell that a constant 0 on the other side requests a null pointer, and generate the correctly-typed null pointer value. Therefore, the following fragments are perfectly legal:
char *p = 0; if(p != 0)(See also question 5.3.)
However, an argument being passed to a function is not necessarily recognizable as a pointer context, and the compiler may not be able to tell that an unadorned 0 ``means'' a null pointer. To generate a null pointer in a function call context, an explicit cast may be required, to force the 0 to be recognized as a pointer. For example, the Unix system call execl takes a variable-length, null-pointer-terminated list of character pointer arguments, and is correctly called like this:
execl("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", "date", (char *)0);If the (char *) cast on the last argument were omitted, the compiler would not know to pass a null pointer, and would pass an integer 0 instead. (Note that many Unix manuals get this example wrong; see also question 5.11.)
When function prototypes are in scope, argument passing becomes an ``assignment context,'' and most casts may safely be omitted, since the prototype tells the compiler that a pointer is required, and of which type, enabling it to correctly convert an unadorned 0. Function prototypes cannot provide the types for variable arguments in variable-length argument lists however, so explicit casts are still required for those arguments. (See also question 15.3.) It is probably safest to properly cast all null pointer constants in function calls, to guard against varargs functions or those without prototypes.
Here is a summary of the rules for when null pointer constants may be used by themselves, and when they require explicit casts:
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K&R1 Sec. A7.7 p. 190, Sec. A7.14 p. 192
K&R2 Sec. A7.10 p. 207, Sec. A7.17 p. 209
ISO Sec. 126.96.36.199
H&S Sec. 4.6.3 p. 95, Sec. 6.2.7 p. 171